The Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War was also called the great war between Sparta and Greek and was caused by Athens provoking Sparta on three different fronts, “the Corcyrean – Athenian treaty,  the siege of Potidaea, and the Megarian decree…” (Nagle, 2014). After many years of fighting and with many losses the Peloponnesian War ended with Athens agreeing to the “destruction of the Long Walls, the fortifications of Piraeus, and the abandonment of the empire.. and to become an ally of Sparta” (Nagle, 2014) as demanded by Sparta. The loss to Sparta which sparked the said agreement was due to numerous factors including the overstretching of resources by the Athenians, especially in pertainment to the naval forces and the building of an empire.

Disparity in Healthcare

According to, disparity is the “lack of similarity or equality; inequality; difference” (“Disparity”, n.d.). Disparities of services, such as healthcare, can occur in relation to cultural, racial or economic differences and can often affect entire communities. Health care may be unattainable to individuals who do not have the means to purchase insurance and do not qualify for programs or benefits that provide services. Therefore, many individuals who can not afford proper health care, and health prevention services, can suffer from a host of life issues outside of health-related issues, such as the inability to work due to untreated illnesses causing permanent disabilities.

The Warrior Women of Ancient Norse Society

The Warrior Women of Ancient Norse Society

Much of the historical texts of the lives of women paint a picture of women who had little to no rights as compared to their male counterparts. Typically women, especially those of ancient European society, were expected to be under the authority of her husband; with the male in charge of all finances, land, and political posts; traditions that followed the Europeans even into the New World (Calloway, 2013). However, in ancient Norse society a woman experienced a latitude of freedoms that European women could only long for and would not see for many centuries to come. Viking women were in charge of financial matters of their families (Short, 2017), managed farms and property in the absence of their husbands (Short, 2017), led battles as warriors (Whipple, 2017), became powerful rulers and political leaders (Foss, 2013), and could acquire vast amounts of land ownership (Short, 2017).

Native American Slave Trade

Europeans brought with them more than just disease and warfare during their invasion of North America, they also brought with them African slaves. Although Native Americans had a slave type of system pre-Europeans there was a difference from the Europeans the Native American slave systems. For example, Native American slaves were, in essence, captives from wars and were not treated as a type of inhuman or subhuman property, like the Europeans did with the African slaves.[1]