The Peloponnesian War was also called the great war between Sparta and Greek and was caused by Athens provoking Sparta on three different fronts, “the Corcyrean – Athenian treaty, the siege of Potidaea, and the Megarian decree…” (Nagle, 2014). After many years of fighting and with many losses the Peloponnesian War ended with Athens agreeing to the “destruction of the Long Walls, the fortifications of Piraeus, and the abandonment of the empire.. and to become an ally of Sparta” (Nagle, 2014) as demanded by Sparta. The loss to Sparta which sparked the said agreement was due to numerous factors including the overstretching of resources by the Athenians, especially in pertainment to the naval forces and the building of an empire.
However, it did not take long for Sparta to also come to the knowledge that they were also unprepared to take command of Greece due to their lack of resources, mainly the financial resources needed to maintain a large naval force and due to the fact that many Greeks felt deep betrayal by Sparta for Sparta selling out Asian Greeks during the war. Another weakness that came to light was the fact that the Greek soldiers who had once fought for honor only now wished to be paid for their services (Nagle, 2014). This military revolution opened up the lines of mercenaries fighting battles. As a result, these new fighting styles were in contrary to traditional Greek military styles.
Nagle, D.B. (2014). The Ancient World – A Social and Cultural History (8th ed.). : Pearson.